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Old 21st October 2009, 02:43 PM   #1 (permalink)
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Critical Reading Guide

Foreword: This article is inspired and extrapolated by my beloved lecturer Radhika Jaidev and her compilation into a comprehensive textbook on Effective Communication. All thanks goes to her as well as the sources used in this particular chapter.

Introduction

Understanding the tools and procedures of critical reading is the first step to understanding what you are reading. The second step is to ensure that the information of what you are reading is accurate, the experts referred to are reliable, and its arguments are sound. These are the standards that you will use to judge the work of others, and these are the same standards that others will judge yours. This guide is here to help you by giving you the tips and tools to attain greater understanding and comprehension of what you are reading, and to allow you to evaluate and seperate facts and opinions so that you know what you should be reading and what you can discard.

Contents

1. Evaluating Definitions

2. Distinguishing Facts from Opinions

3. Evaluating Assumptions

4. Evaluating Logic: Fallacies

5. Examining Evidence

6. Examining Emotional Appeals

Conclusions and Tips

Bibliography & Sources

1.Evaluating Definitions

Consider this statement: Expatriates have a better life than locals. What does better life mean? If you and an author define these words differently, you are sure to disagree. When evaluating an article, these are the things you would need to do:

1. Look for "terms of art" - broad concept words whose definitions are a matter of agreement, not fact. Terms such as honor and patriotism are terms of art.

2. Look for strong characterizations, positive or negative. When a writer labels someone or something as important, lemantable, courageous, heroic, biased or tyrannical, pay close attention. Labels can suggest the author's value judgement and opinion more than a presentation of fact.

3. Look for conflicting definitions of the same word in two or more sources. For example, the word mature in one source may describe a person beyond a certain biological age, while another article may state maturity as a state of mind and personality as well as an accumulation of life experiences. Both articles talk about maturity differently. Clarify each use of the word and the values associated with it.

4. At times you will encounter an author devoting entire paragraphs to defining a key word, and as a writer yourself you may sometimes do the same thing. Read these extended definitions with care and decide if you accept them, because they form the entire basis of their arguments.

In a nutshell. identify key terms on which a presentation rests on and ask: Has the author defined this term clearly? Do I agree with this definition?

2. Distinguishing Facts from Opinions

Before you can evaluate a statement, you should know whether it is being offered as a fact or an opinion. A fact is any statement that can be verified:

Nationwide, the price of essentials is rising.
Bukit Batok is on the west side of Singapore
Lancelot is awesome.


(Which of these three above statements is a fact or an opinion?)

A little checking can establish these statements as true or false. As a critical reader, question the accuracy of a fact or how the fact was shown to be true.

An opinion is a statement of interpretation and judgement. Opinions are not true or false in the way that statements of fact are. Opinions are more or less well supported. A friend saying, "That movie was terrible," is expressing an opinion. If you ask why, you can expect your friend to offer reasons and perhaps engage you in a debate or discussion. If your friend responst ,"I didn't like it." and offers no reasons, you can reject the opinion as unsupported.

Mixing facts and opinions: As a critical reader, be alert to writers who blur the distinction between facts and opinions. Consider this example:

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, a disappointing 28 percent of all Singaporeans volunteer 50 or more hours every week.

The statistic on the rate of volunteering in Singapore in this example would come from a reliable source and can be trusted. But whether or not 28 percent is a "disappointing" figure is a matter of opinion. As a critical reader, you need to separate opinions from facts.

3. Evaluating Assumptions

An assumption is a fundamental view of how the world and peple and things in it work or ought to work. Assumpts are based on a person's experiences, learning and belief systems. The statement People are trustworthy is an assumption. Can it be proven? No. One believes this - or does not - based on personal experiences and observation and then acts accordingly (perhaps by leaving doors unlocked). Are other assumptions regarding human nature possible? Yes, including its opposite: People cannot be trusted.

Consider two sets of assumptions: Every source involves two sets of assumptions: Yours and the author's. Your agreement with an author depends largely on the extent to which you share assumptions. Note that both an author's assumptions and yours may be stated directly or indirectly.

Assumption stated directly

1. A nation is justified in going to war when hostile forces threaten its borders.
2. A nation is justified in going to war when hostile forces threaten its interests.

At times, an author hints at, but does not directly state, an assumption. Nonetheless, an assumption is operating, as in this example:

Assumption hidden

3. It makes no sense to fight a war 7,000 miles from home.

Sentence 3 is based on the assumption expressed in Sentence 1. Suppose you were reading an editorial and encountered Sentence 3. In a careful, critical reading you would detect in this statement an unexpressed assumption about the reasons nations should go to war. By exposing assumptions, you will understand the basis of your agreement or disagreement with an author. If you can show that an author's assumptions (whether stated directly or indirectly) is somehow flawed, you can argue that opinions based on it are flawed as well and deserve to be challenged or rejected.

4. Evaluating Logic: Fallacies

Academic writing is based overwhelmingly on appeals to logic and evidence. When you evaluate an article or source, you should do so primarily by examining the author's use of logic and evidence. This section is devoted to errors (or fallacies) that make sources or articles less reliable. Be aware of these errors so that you can spot them in the writing of others and avoid them in your own writing.

Faulty Generalization: A generalization is a broad conclusion taken to be true because many specific examples have proven to be true. A generalization is hasty (that is, flawed) if the writer makes the broad conclusion too quickly, based on insufficient evidence:

There are 500 people on SGClub. I have surveyed 10 people on SGClub (of 500 people). Nine people want to be as awesome as Lancelot. One does not. Hence members of SGClub want to be as awesome as Lancelot.

(Faulty reasoning: Many more people would need to be interviewed before this generalization could be considered accurate.)

Faulty Cause & Effect: Three types of flaws (called cause and effect flaws) can lead a writer to incorrectly state that one event causes another. The first cause and effect flaw concerns the ordering of events in time. The fact that one event occurs before another does not prove that the first event caused the second:

Lancelot had a stomachache on July 6th. SGClub went offline in the same morning. Lancelot's stomachache caused the forum to shutdown temporarily.

(Faulty reasoning: Only nearness in time connects the events. Drawing a cause & effect relationship is not logical)

The second cause and effect flaw is the belief that events must have single causes. Usually, many factors contribute to an event. To claim that one cause is the only cause tends to oversimplify matters.

Lancelot's stomachache caused the SGClub website to shut down temporarily

(Faulty reasoning: Several converging causes likely led to the shut down, among them possibly the lack of continuous feeding of awesome from Lancelot or his manly power of manliness that keeps server from exploding due to the emo and negativity of the world as well as other factors may contribute to the temporary shutting down.)

The third cause and effect flaw is the belief that if one event occurs in the presence of another event, the first event must have caused the second. Not so. The classic formulation of this error is that "correlation does not imply causation."

Statistics show that everytime Lancelot goes to the bathroom, SGClub suffers a temporary shutdown. This server is down for the moment because Lancelot is in the bathroom now.

(Faulty reasoning: A correlation between Lancelot going to the bathroom and the server shutting down may exist, but the shutting down of the server does not cause Lancelot to have a stomachache.)

Faulty Analogy: A writer may use an analogy to compare (and clarify) an unknown person, place, or thing to a known person, place, or thing. An effective analogy can promote understanding. Lancelot is as awesome as the Sun. He is always shining brightly. The wrong analogy can mislead others:

The process of writing is like climbing a ladder.

(Faulty reasoning: The analogy suggests that the writing occurs in a clear progression of steps that lead inevitably "up" to a finished product. Actual writing is not usually so direct.)

Either/Or Reasoning aka False Dilemma: Be wary of an argument in which an author preselects two possibilities from among many and then attempts to force a choice on the reader. Often, the choice is false because other possibilities exist.

Either we vote the PAP out of the government so that we can finally be free from their grip or we can take a passive role and see ourselves getting poorer and poorer under their tyranny. The choice is clear.

(Faulty reasoning: The choice is not at all clear. Other possibilities exist.)

Personal Attacks: Personal attacks, known in Latin as ad hominem arguments, challenge the person presenting a view rather than the view itself. Criticize an argument on its merits, not the person holding it.

That minister earns millions a year, so how can he recommend any steps for poor people to manage their finances better when he is not poor?

(Faulty reasoning: The challenge sidesteps the views under discussion [the minister's recommendations] by dismissing the person who holds those views.)

Begging The Question: Writers who assume the validity of a point that they should be proving by argument beg the question (that is to avoid the question).

Patriotic Singaporeans support the Prime Minister

(Faulty reasoning: Who is patriotic? One could argue that under certain circumstances defying a prime minister is patriotic. The person making the statement assumes a definition that he or she should be arguing. One should always define and establish the perimeters of one's key terms to avoid begging the question)

The Slippery Slope: Writers sometimes will argue that one step taken along a path will lead inevitably to a particular (usually negative) outcome. A downward progression of events is not inevitable and is not logical.

We don't allow candy - not even non-sweetened chocolates - in this house because a love of sweets leads to obesity.

(Faulty reasoning: The path from eating candy to obesity is not inevitable.)

The Straw Man: In trying to discredit someone's argument, writers will sometimes create an extreme or weakened version of the argument called a "straw man". They will then criticize their mischaracterization as ridiculous or unthinkable, claiming that the original argument is flawed because their extreme or weakened representation of it is flawed.

GST raised to 7% ?! OMG I have to pay an extra 7000 dollars if I want to buy something that costs $100,000 ?! This is nonsense !

(Faulty reasoning: The writer shifts the argument from the value of increasing the GST to an extreme that places buyers at a significant drain of resources to purchase an already substantially priced product. In criticizing an obviously impossible purchase, the writer tries illogically to dismiss the value of a Goods Service Tax.)

5. Examining Evidence

When examining and evaluating an article or source, examine the author's use of facts, examples, statistics, and expert opinions. Before you use these findings in a paper or post or article, be certain they are accurate, appropriate, and reliable.

Facts and Examples

Facts and Examples should fairly represent the available data. Authors who sift through a great deal of evidence in order to find one confirming fact or example misrepresent their information. As the reader, ask of every fact or example: Is this typical of other facts and examples relating to the topic?

A developer wants to build an office park adjacent to an apartment complex. In speaking before the city's zoning board, the developer quotes one apartment resident who approves of the project. But unless a majority of residents thared that approval, the developer could not ethically say it was representative.

Facts and Examples should be current.: Facts and examples should be current, especially when an author is arguing about recent events or is drawing information from a field in which information is changing rapidly.

A writer reports that cities are installing wireless Internet access in public spaces. For such a current topic, you would expect the writer to refer to recent data. Stale data, a year or more out of date, would cast doubt on what the author sees as "trends".

Negative instances of Facts and Examples should be acknowledged.: In an honest argument, writers indentify evidence against their position.

In an argument against a service learning requirement for graduation, a writer fails to mention research showing that a significant percentage of students enjoys volunteer work, even when required. The writer is less than truthful by failing to produce this contrary evidence.

Statistics

You may have heard the expression attributed to the 19th century British Prime Minister Benhamin Disraeli: "There are three kinds of lies: lies, damn lies, and statistics.". Mark Twain made the statement popular in the United States, and we chuckle in response to its wisdom: Numbers can persuade, but they also can be easily misued. Be alert to their potential for misuse.

Statistics should come from reliable and current sources.: Without a background in statistics, you will find it difficult to evaluate the use of statistics in sources. Still, you can take a commonsense approach to evaluation:

1. Look for statistics cited from reliable sources.
2. Generally trust statistics published in an academic press or peer-reviewed journal (that is, by publishers that accept articles only after experts review and approve content.)
3. Verify statistics generated by organizations with a known bias: for example, political parties, lobbying groups, and special-interest foundations or organizations.
4. Confirm that statistics are current if used in discussions of current topics or topics dependent on fast-changing data.

Question sources that rely entirely on statistics.: Statistics do not speak for themselves. Writers must interpret them. Because interpretation is a form of argument, statistics used in a source will exist within a logical framework. If that logic is absent and the writer attempts to make points by relying solely on statistics, pause to ask two questions:

1. Minus the statistics, what logic does the author use to make the main point? Is the logic sound? Is it convincing?
2. Statistics change, often quickly. Will the author's main point continue to be valid if the statistics supporting it change?

Expert Opinions

"Experts" who give opinions should be qualified to do so.: The authority of experts is based on their experience with a topic. Use the following strategies to determine if an expert cited in a source is, in fact, qualified to speak:

1. Consider an expert reliable if you see her or his name cited in several sources.
2. Look for an identifying "tag" or affiliation (Example: Mr Blah blah, professor of X at Univerity Y, explains...). Conduct an Internet search on the expert to confirm expertise.
3. Insist that experts speak on their topics of expertise. Researchers famous for work in one area of study sometimes speak on topics unrelated to their work. Certainly they are entitled to speak, but in these circumstances their statements carry no special weight.

Experts should not personally gain from their opinions.: You can dismiss an expert's statements if you find that the expert will profit somehow from the opinions or interpretations offered.

6. Examining Emotional Appeals

Appeals to the emotions are used liberally and effectively in politics, advertising, religious life, and debates around the family table or on the forums. Academic writing is based on logic, not emotion. If a source is to be useful for academic purposes, look for the author to write logically. Identify and respond to emotional appeals when you find them, and distinguish them from logical appeals. Base your evaluation of a source on the author's use of logic and evidence.

Conclusions and Tips

Reliability Check: Who is the Author?

Check the credentials of the author for a quick measure of a source's reliability. If you have a choice, work with the sources whose authors meet these criteria:

1. The author is widely regarded as an expert (verify through the Internet)
2. The author is not a self-described expert
3. The author has no well-known biases
4. The author is writing in her or his field of expertise
5. The author does not stand to benefit from writing about the topic.

Reliability Check: Who published the Source/Article?

Check the publisher of a source for a quick measure of its reliability.

1. Academic presses. Works published by academic presses (e.g. Oxford University Press) are reliable because they are "peer-reviewed". Before agreeing to publish, editors ask experts to review and approve the manuscript.

2. Commercial presses. Commercial publishers do not tend to review projects as thoroughly as academic publishers. You should therefore verify material you use from commercially published books.

3. Magazines and Journals. Articles in academic or professional journals are peer-reviewed and are more reliable than those published in magazines.

4. "In-house" presses. Special interest groups (e.g. a nonprofit organization such as the Earth First ! or the ACLU) often have a publishing arm. Special-interest publications can be informative, but "in-house' productions may be biased. Verify the reliability of information used from these sources. These include publications from political parties.

Evaluation: Questions for Sources/Articles that Explain, Sources/Articles that Argue.
Aside from plays, novels, and poetry, most of what you read in an academic setting will be written primarily to inform or to argue. Determine the author's primary purpose and pose questions for evaluation.

Sources/Articles that Explain

When a selection asks you to accept an explanation, a description, or a procedure as accurate, pose these questions:

1. For whom has the author intended the explanation, description, or procedure? The general public (nonexperts)? Someone involved in the same business or process? An observer, such as an evaluator or a supervisor?

2. What is defined and explained? How successful is the presentation, given its intended audience?

3. How trustworthy is the author's information? How current is it? If it is not current, are the points being made still applicale, assuming more recent information could be obtained?

4. If the author presents a procedure, what is its purpose or outcome? Who would carry it out? When? For what reasons? Does the author present the stages of the procedure?

Sources/Articles that Argue

When a selection asks you to accept an argument, pose these questions:

1. What conclusion am I being asked to accept?

2. What reasons and evidence has the author offered for me to accept this conclusion? Are the reasons logical? Is the evidence fair? Has the author acknowledged and responded to other points of view?

3. To what extent is the author appealing to logic? To my emotions? To my respect for the authorities? To self-interest?

Conclusion

I hope that this guide can help you all be a more critical reader, and able to evaluate whatever you read on the newspapers, internet, or other sources with more intelligent discernment.

Bibliography

Jaidev, Radhika. COR100 Effective Communication. Compilation. Pearson Custom Publishing.

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Last edited by Lancelot; 21st October 2009 at 02:46 PM.
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Old 21st October 2009, 03:03 PM   #2 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

Nice guide
Just finished reading

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Old 21st October 2009, 03:05 PM   #3 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

Hope its helpful not just for school work, but in real life too.

Read everything intelligently and you will not be misled by false logic and misinformation. That is the way to be a really intelligent and critical reader.

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Old 21st October 2009, 03:50 PM   #4 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

This is kind of a lengthy guide but very useful.
Thanks for sharing~!

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Old 21st October 2009, 04:32 PM   #5 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

thumbs up* for the guide!

Very useful! Reminds everyone to think twice before posting and whether its relevant or not.

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Old 21st October 2009, 04:32 PM   #6 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

Thanks for sharing Lancelot.
Thumbs up for you =D

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Old 21st October 2009, 06:53 PM   #7 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

Great guide! Thank you!
I think this will help me in my EL O's P2

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Old 21st October 2009, 11:07 PM   #8 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

Thank you for your support.

Let's hope more people read this article.

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Old 22nd October 2009, 02:56 AM   #9 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

As an Honours student in a subject in which I am required to do a lot of critical reading and writing, I can safely say that Lancelot's guide is nothing short of briliant. Well done! Nom nom nom....

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Old 23rd October 2009, 02:12 PM   #10 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

Very useful for my SBQ in SS and argumentative essays. Thx Lancelot.

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Old 4th January 2010, 03:12 PM   #11 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

i like ur style of writing.. u shld go and publish a book or smth

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Old 6th October 2010, 05:49 PM   #12 (permalink)
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omg. my SRQ is like tmr. and what you wrote are what my teachers taught in class. sigh.

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Old 7th October 2010, 10:02 PM   #13 (permalink)
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Re: Critical Reading Guide

LANCELOTTTTT meowwww.. where is ur summary tips again? I will read it whenever my exam come lor..

dslitemylove added 3 Minutes and 43 Seconds later...

OMG.. this is smth like SBQ too ..

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