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Old 22nd March 2012, 10:54 PM   #1 (permalink)
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Pure History (2173)! Anyone taking?

Is anyone kind enough to help me with Paper 1 for Pure history? (2173/1)

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Old 29th March 2012, 08:20 PM   #2 (permalink)
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Re: Pure History (2173)! Anyone taking?

No one?
I can help back in the Paper 2(modern world history) if you want.

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Old 6th April 2012, 04:35 PM   #3 (permalink)
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Re: Pure History (2173)! Anyone taking?

Causes of World War Two
Failure of League of Nations
- The LON was an international organisation set up in response to the Treaty of Versailles and US President Wilson’s Fourteen Points.
- Mainly aimed at establishing and sustaining peace and security around the world but failed to do so.
- It was weak and ineffective when faced with challenges posed by major powers like Germany.
- Weak as not all nations were members of the LON. E.g. USA
- Some members left the LON. E.g. Japan left the LON when they felt that they were not supportive of its expansionist plans.
- Ineffective as not prompt in making decisions.
- Countries like France and Britain saw the LON as a platform for discussions ONLY.
- Due to its inherent weakness, the LON was unwilling to use force and preferred a policy of appeasement.
- Hitler was convinced that the LON was weak, and this explains why he resorted to an aggressive foreign policy that eventually led to the Second World War.
Nazi-Soviet Pact
- Hitler and Stalin, despite their differences, signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact in 1939.
- It was a carefully planned alliance that was supposed to benefit both countries.
- Considered as a ‘Marriage of convenience’ between the two leaders.
- He did not want interference from the Soviet Union when attacking Poland.
- Under the alliance, both agreed not to fight each other and to split Poland.
- It ensured that Germany need not fight on both fronts when attacking Poland, only having to fight Britain and France.
- Also ensured that the Soviet Union would not attack Germany or be allied with Britain and France.
- Having taken care of the Soviet Union, he proceeded on to invade Poland, and did not withdraw their troops even when told to do so by Britain and France.
- Hence, the Nazi-Soviet Pact was an important reason for the war.
Policy of Appeasement Followed by Britain and France
- Germany’s aggressive behaviour had always been met with appeasement by the British and French in the 1930s.
- The appeasement explains the reluctance of Britain and France of getting involved so that war could be avoided.
- The Allied powers appeased Germany due to several reasons
1) Memories of World War One
2) Domestic problems faced by Britain and France
3) Britain and France’s attitude towards Hitler
- This gave the impression that Britain and France were weak and frightened.
- Hitler was tempted to demand more and more, while Britain and France continued to give in.
- He was brave enough to carry on with the annexation of territories around Germany.
- It continued until it reached a point when the Allied powers could not tolerate any more.
- Britain and France had lost trust in Hitler.
- When Germany invaded Poland, it was given two days to withdraw its troops.
- They failed to do so, and war was declared on Germany.

Hitler’s Foreign Policy
- Hitler adopted an aggressive policy as he wanted to redress the problems posed by the Treaty of Versailles.
- And also to establish a Greater Germany by bringing more territories under his control.
- As Germany needed more land for its increasing population.
- He believed that the Germans were superior race and had to be united.
- He followed a systematic expansionist policy.
- He got Germany out of the LON and began to break the terms dictated by the Treaty of Versailles.
- Began to rearm and build up the military might of Germany.
- Signed alliances to safeguard his interest. E.g. Nazi-Soviet Pact
- He broke the promises he made in the Munich Agreement.
- His aggressive expansionist policies were driven by his quest for power beyond Germany.
- Finally when he invaded Poland, the Allied forces lost their patience and this led to the Second World War.
[Attack on Poland]
- Besides, the Allied powers had already warned him that if he invaded Poland, they would launch an attack on Germany.
- When Germany invaded Poland, it was given two days to withdraw its troops.
- When they failed to do so, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
- Hence, the invasion of Poland led to the end of appeasement, and subsequently, to WW2.

Conclusion
1) Was the failure of the League of Nations the most important cause of the Second World War? Explain your answer. [13]

- The failure of the League of Nations was not the main reason for the war. Neither was Appeasement the main reason. The main reason was Hitler himself and his aggressive policies. Even before coming to power, Hitler was already showing indications of expanding his control beyond the boundaries of Germany. When he came into power, he began to build up his armed forces. This shows he had already planned for a large scale warfare. He was simply unstoppable and this shows that it was because of his aggression that the Second World War began.




2) ‘The following were equally important reasons why war broke out in Europe in 1939:
 Hitler’s aggressive foreign policy;
 The failure of the League of Nations;
 The Nazi-Soviet Pact;’
Do you agree with this statement?
Explain your answer referring only to i), ii) and iii). [13]

- I disagree that all three reasons are equally important. The main reason was Hitler himself and his aggressive policies. Even before coming to power, Hitler was already showing indications of expanding his control beyond the boundaries of Germany. When he came into power, he began to build up his armed forces. This shows he had already planned for a large scale warfare. He was simply unstoppable and this shows that it was because of his aggression that the Second World War began. The Nazi-Soviet Pact and the failure of the League of Nations merely made it easier for him to proceed with his expansionist intentions.




3) To what extent did Hitler’s attack on Poland cause World War 2? Explain your answer. [13]

- Although the invasion of Poland was the final straw the led to the war, the main reasons was Hitler himself and his aggressive policies. Even before coming to power, Hitler was already showing indications of expanding his control beyond the boundaries of Germany. When he came into power, he began to build up his armed forces. This shows he had already planned for a large scale warfare. He was simply unstoppable and this shows that it was because of his aggression that the Second World War began. The Nazi-Soviet Pact and the failure of the League of Nations merely made it easier for him to proceed with his expansionist intentions.

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Old 6th April 2012, 04:53 PM   #4 (permalink)
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Re: Pure History (2173)! Anyone taking?

Why Policy of Appeasement to Hitler?
Memories of WW1
- People were haunted by the suffering and destruction caused by the war.
- Cost the lives of about 8 million soldiers and the number of injured soldiers was estimated to be more than 20 million.
- Claimed many innocent civilian lives; severe food shortage and a general loss of morale among them.
- The war was costly; many countries had heavy debts.
Britain faced huge debts which were used to finance the war. They borrowed large sums of money and had also raised taxes.
- Policy of appeasement was to pacify Hitler, otherwise Hitler would have started another war.
- Thus, the British government resorted to appeasing the Germans.
Problems Faced by Britain/France
- They had to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression rather than getting involved in another war.
- Reduction in unemployment.
- Not willing to spend money on weapons and on expanding its armed force.
- Britainís large overseas possessions were causing troubles.
India and Palestine had growing opposition.
- Britain did not want to have problems in Europe as well.
- Thus, Britain had to appease Germany.
Britainís Attitude Towards Hitler
- Britain was sympathetic to Germany
- It felt that Treaty of Versailles was rather harsh to Germany.
Reparations was crippling Germanyís economy and causing hardship to Germans.
- Britain was also ready to give in to Hitlerís demands and tolerated Germanyís foreign policy as they did not expect Hitler to continue demanding more and more.
- Britain believed that by allowing Hitler to take possession of some territories, he would be pacified.
- It also believed that Hitler was a reasonable man who after some time would stop acting aggressively.
- Thus, Britain resorted to appeasing Germany.
Misinterpretation of Appeasement Policy by Hitler (only for whether policy was justified)
- Hitler thought that the League of Nation was weak and would not stop him from taking over the territories around Germany.
- Allied powers did not expect Hitler to continue demanding more and more, and believe that by allowing Hitler to take possession of some territories, he would be pacified.
- Aggressive policy was adopted to redress the problems posed by the Treaty of Versailles.
- He began to rearm and build up the military might of Germany.
- He signed alliance to safeguard his interest. E.g. Nazi-Soviet Pact.
- He broke the promise he made in Munich Agreement.
- His aggressive expansionist policies were driven by his quest for power beyond Germany.
- He was an unreasonable leader and thus could not be stopped by the appeasement policy.
- These shows that the appeasement policy was not justified.
- It actually helped Hitler to attack other countries and eventually this led to the Second World War.

Conclusion
Why did the British government appease Germany in the 1930s? [12]

- Although all factors led to Britainís policy of appeasement, the problems it had to contend with were the main reason. Britain had to solve its internal problems first before it could even think about solving the problems in other parts of Europe. This shows that Britain was actually not ready to challenge Hitler. If Britain were to be free of such domestic problems it would have certainly taken a harsh decision against Hitler.
Was the appeasement policy of the late 1930s justified? Explain your answer. [12]

- Although there are reasons to justify the appeasement policy, it actually led to the Second World War. Hitler manipulated the other powers to his advantage. Hitler became more daring and saw the policy as weakness of Britain and France. Hence the policy cannot be justified as Hitler was an unreasonable man.

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