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Old 22nd August 2010, 01:06 AM   #1 (permalink)
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Venice GCE O level self notes.

I am bored therefore i am doing this,I will be typing out some venice notes on the rise of venice ^^

Good leadership capable and far-sighted

1.Establishing control in the adriatic sea
-Doge pietro II orseolo reconciled with feuding cities to protect venice's independence,he negotiated treaties to obtain favourable trading terms,created trade links with major powers and brought piracy under control

2.Building the venetian empire
-Doge Enrico Dandolo captured constantinople and controlled some of the important territories which had belonged to the fallen byzantine empire-led to the grow of venice as a maritime empire

3.Expanding the venetian empire in the mediterranean sea
-Expanded trade through conquest by setting up military outposts along important trade routes to control the mediterranean

Reforms in the government

1.Meeting challenges of a growing city-state
-Creation of the the great council
-Elect capable members to all councils in government
-Settled disputes between councils,passed laws,meted out punishments and granted pardons to criminals.
-To prevent rivalry it was expanded to give more nobles to have a say in government
-Specialisation of duties
-Council of forty was created to handle finance,law and coinage
-Council of senate added to act jointly with the council of forty that took charge of foreign relations,commerce and the operations of venetian fleets

2.Maintaining checks and balances-Effective checks on power
-Council of ten monitored activities of organizations and officials to ensure there were no corrupt practices or abuse of power-no one was above the law;limiting the doge's power

3.Preventing the concentration of power
-Nominating committee identified candidates through ballot to prevent and individual/family from dominating government
-No campaignin-so no rivalry and personal favours
-Appointed nobles not allowed to reject position to ensure that all positions of responsibility in the government were filled up

Trade developments and expansion
1.Attitudes towards trade
-Skilled diplomats;obtained favourable trading terms
-Lower tax rates,Bring in highly prized spices-Maintaining a competitive edge over others
-Possessed adventurous spirit e.g explored new trade routes and took calculated risks,enabling venice to expand its trade

2.Innovations in maritime technology
-Advances in navigation and weaponry
-Paving the way for oceanic discoveries later
e.g - mariner's compass ensured ships stayed on course
e.g - nautical charts let traders plan journey more accurately
-with advanced technology,winter travels becomes possible,enabling venice to dominate trade in the mediterranean sea throughout the year
-With extensive knowledge of shipbuilding,designed and built superior vessels/galleys able to sail swiftly over long distances
-Thus facilitating the expansion of trade and territorial control
e.g first venetian great galley built was formidable enough to discourage most pirates from launching an attack on venetian trading ships

3.Efficiency in managing voyages
-efficiency in arrival and dparture of voyages
-Senate organized and monitored schedules of trade voyages
-grouped traders and ordered them to travel in convoys
-more profitable to trade in larger quantities;safer
-more frequent voyages as venetian traders were able to travel during winter
-great galleys capable of transporting more goos

4.Overcoming trade competition
-Able to defeat and overcome competition from genoa in the mediterranean sea and black sea
-Able to control the mediterranean sea bringing them more internatonal trade

5.Trade monopoly
-Monopoly in the mediterranean region strategically located at the northern tip of the adriatic sea
-Central and southern Europe relied on Venice for goods from the East such as spices,sugar,etc
-Venetian traders went to arabian ports such as alexandria to buy and later sell these goods to other european states at a very high price,enabling venetian leaders to reap large profits
-Venice's navy dominated the region and european states had little choice than to buy from venice

Industrial development

1.Trade related industry
-Development of shipbuilding industry
-Centralized at the arsenal became the backbone of venice's maritimes industry and power

2.Manufacturing industries
-Demands for goods led to growth of manufacturing such as glassmaking and printing
-Created jobs -Attracted skilled craftsmen and increased people's wealth

Innovative practices
-Double entry bookkeeping to keep track of business
-Giro banking-cashless transaction convenient and efficient

Hope it would help you guys

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Old 22nd August 2010, 10:58 AM   #2 (permalink)
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Re: Venice GCE O level self notes.

Hi, as part of my preparation I have typed out some SEQ content in the form of describe and explain.

4. Industrial development
Trade-related industry
Before the advances in maritime technology, the shipbuilding industry was small and scattered all over Venice. Around 1100, all the shipbuilders were centralized at the Arsenal.

The shipbuilding industry benefitted immensely from the expansion of trade. When the demand for great galleys increased in the 13th century, the Arsenal was expanded to facilitate production. It was a great industrial complex and eventually became the backbone of Veniceís maritime industry and power. It built and maintained galleys to allow trading activities.

Manufacturing industries
With the increase in wealth through trade expansion, there was a greater demand for goods in Venice which promoted the growth of manufacturing industries. Examples of industries which developed were glassmaking and the production of scented soap. New industries also emerged, e.g. the printing industry was established to serve the large reading public in Venice. The industries grew rapidly because Veniceís extensive trade connections made it easy to find buyers for their goods. (L2/4)

With new industries, more jobs were created for the people and Venice continued to prosper. This attracted talents like skilled craftsmen from areas such as other parts of Europe to settle down and work in Venice, who contributed to the manufacturing of quality goods. The development of the industries also meant that they earned higher profits, which increased the wealth of Venice and its people. With an increased population and economic wealth, Venice was able to develop to become a great and influential city-state. (L3/6)

5. Innovative practices
The Venetians also developed and introduced the use of innovative practices in trade and business, which include double-entry bookkeeping and giro-banking. The double-entry bookkeeping was a useful system to business transactions, for which there was a standardization of the credit and debit columns and entries which are recorded by date. It helped to meet the tradersí needs because it clearly shows the amount of goods in the traderís possession and details of recent transactions. Another practice is giro-banking, for which traders use bank accounts to carry out transactions. It offered convenience because traders need not carry large amounts of different currencies to trade with different traders. (L2/4)

As a result of their innovative spirit, they were able to develop practices that helped to facilitate trade further. For example, by not needing to carry large amounts of cash through the use of giro-banking, trading activities were safer and the traders need not fear of money being stolen. More importantly, many traders came to Venice because they enjoyed the convenience and efficiency of the Venetianís trade-related services. This increase in trade brought Venice economic prosperity, which contributed to its rise. (L3/6)

Just vomit these out when doing SEQs. No need to waste time and think.

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