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Old 2nd March 2009, 09:10 PM   #1 (permalink)
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The 'whys' behind car mods

Welcome to the second part. Here, we will look at the common modifications done to the average cars. yes, the limits are endless when it comes to this and will stretch as far as your wallet will take you. but let's look at some of the basics of car modification. We will aproach this from a theoretical point of view, hopefully put in simpler words so everyone can understand.

We can split the mods into 3 sections: Engine, Handling and Aerodynamics (yes it has an effect too). Probably should be split into 3 different threads. this is gonna be a long one. so please bear with it. I'll try to keep it short so everyone makes it to the end.

Engine:

An engine is a complicated air pump. basically what goes in, must come out. modifications in this area aim to improve the volumetric efficiency of the engine. so what is volumetric efficiency?

Volumetric Efficiency can be defined as the ability to fill a (fixed)volume, with a mass. The more mass you can squeeze in, the higher the efficiency. NA engines will seldom reach 100% efficiency, but for forced induction engines, VE's of 110% above are common(in wide open throttle). There's an equation for this, as well as calculations but we'll leave that out for now. Common modifications to the engine are done in 3 areas, Intake, Head and Exhaust. There is a common law for this: Bigger is not always better!

Let's define flow rate too, since this term is always being used here. Flow rate, or volumetric flow rate to be more precise, is defined as Q = V*A. where Q is the volumetric flow rate, v is the velocity of the fluid and A is the cross section area. From here you can see that for a fixed flow rate, a higher velocity requires a smaller cross section area.

If you increase the cross sectional area or diameter of pipe, for the same flow rate, the velocity drops.

Intake:


To increase volumetric efficiency in the intake, we can look at reducing the resistance to the flow of air. The stock paper element filter provides a good balance between flow, and filtration. However for more power, that can be replaced by an aftermarket filter with less restrictions, although to keep the air box or not might be a question.
Having the stock filter box in place allows for a 'reservoir' of air for the engine to tap into in this low speed range, which decreases the 'lag' and improves feel and low end torque. In cars such as the RX8 and S2000, the volume of this box is so well designed, that removing it often leads to screwing something else up.

One way to improve Volumetric Efficiency would be to minimize bends and intrusions. The stock piping on the average car has been designed with minimal bends as possible, and minimal intrusions. However, for the ease of fitting and manufacturing, plastic has been used, which might have a rougher internal finish, or have a 'bendy' kind of corrugation in corners and joints. These increase the resistance of the air flow inside(by increasing the friction factor), and can be changed to a polished steel piping for better flow.

Intake piping diameter. Now this is where it gets tricky. The simple answer, is that factory setting is the best compromise. For the intake pipe, we are looking at having as less of a restriction as possible, but also having as high of a flow velocity as possible. Again, there's an equation for this also known as the Darcy Weisbach equation, but we won't go into that here. Basically, the bigger and shorter the pipe, the less the restriction. However, a bigger diameter pipe also results in a lower flow velocity. A smaller diameter pipe has a higher velocity for the same flow rate, but a higher restriction. A compromise has to be found, for the operational rpm range of the engine, but the story doesn't stop there.

There's also intake manifold length tuning, which is matching the pressure pulses of the intake wave of air to coincide with the entry point of the cylinders (very complicated!).


Now, you should see why we shouldn't mess with the factory settings unless we know what we are doing, and that how sometimes changing a part can result in worse performance.

Head:


Now, the common modder won't be touching this area, because it can be very costly! so we'll just skip this step. Basically, it follows the same principle as the one above, which is to increase volumetric efficiency by maximizing the flow rate, by reducing restrictions(porting), and sometimes with bigger valves or higher lift/duration cams. All porting jobs should be bench flow tested to ensure that the flow rates are equal for all the intake ports. We don't want one cylinder to be getting more air than the others, for the same amount of fuel.



Compression ratio is the ratio between the total volume and the clearance volume. or in the above figure, A:B. Increasing the compression ratio is another way to increase power, by increasing the efficiency of combustion. The average NA car engines are about 25% efficient, which means only 25% of the energy from fuel gets converted into work. even lesser by the time the power reaches the wheels. pretty wasteful huh? by increasing the efficiency, for that same drop of fuel, the power output will increase. An engine's efficiency is directly related to compression ratio but we won't go into that for now.

Exhaust:


Now, this is where it gets interesting. There are alot of common misconception about exhausts, with different people having different theories. We'll refer to the laws of thermo-fluid dynamics for this one.

Before we get into this, remember valve overlap? Valve overlap is the moment when both intake and exhaust valves are opened, and it happens towards the end of the exhaust stroke. we'll get back to this later.

Similarly with the intake, the goal of the exhaust system is to get the gas out as quickly and as efficiently as possible. This is where we can tap more power from. Mass production and cost saving manufacturing methods, together with today's strict emission standards means a compromise in power. Contrary to what people think, backpressure is not good. It's never good.. Backpressure is the result of restrictions within the exhaust causing the gases to 'bounce' back, which is the opposite of what we want to achieve. Perhaps the idea was there, but it was phrased wrongly.

Imagine sucking a jug of water through a straw.. if the straw was a Vitagen straw, it would take forever wouldnt it? What if it were the size or diameter of a paper towel roll, would it make you drink any faster? You'd probably choke on that. The best, is a compromise between speed, and the ease of sucking the water in, which would be about 5mm in diameter.

Let's bring in a term called exhaust scavanging. The goal of exhaust scavanging is that in a properly designed system, the gases are 'sucked' out of the cylinder quicker, and in that process creating a partial vacuum or a siphoning effect, which aids in drawing in the intake air. Valve overlap is exactly when this happens, right when both valves are open.

In large overlap scenerios, especially with race engines, together with properly designed and tuned exhausts, this partial vacuum in the cylinders make some of the intake charge (air+fuel) overflow into the exhaust port. This leads the the fuel and air igniting in the hot exhaust stream, causing that burst of cool flames coming out of the exhaust. Usually present in an overly rich environment after lifting the foot off the gas. (before a corner)

Flames shooting out of V8 supercar.

Bigger is not always better. In the exhaust system, similarly with the intake, we want a maximized flow rate with as high velocity. Bigger pipes, reduce flow velocity for the same flow rate. Which is not good. This leads to stagnent flow, which chokes up the system leading to poor throttle response at low engine speeds. What we want here is as small diameter as possible to maintain the flow velocity (and have a siphoning effect), and as large diameter as possible to maximize flow rate with minimal restrictions. Then, there is exhaust length tuning also, similar to the intake. How long each exhaust runner should be, when and how do they join up, and the overall length of the pipe, etc. This itself, is a very complicated topic, well beyond me for now too.


4-2-1 exhaust header. notice how the 4 pipes join to 2, and finally merge to one.

Parts such as the stock cast manifolds, joints, catalytic converter, silencer and muffler, all increase the restrictions in exhaust flow with the benefit of cost, low emissions and low noise. These are easy gains to power, without changing the stock diameter size, improving the flow rate and velocity of the exhaust gasses. Also, stock car exhaust pipings are commonly press bent, which leaves creases in the piping and a smaller internal diameter for that section. Cheap to make, but that increases the resistance significantly. This is why many performance exhaust systems are mandrel bent, which is 'stretching' the pipe so that it bends with a constant diameter throughout.

if you've seen a NA civic running a very big exhaust, have you noticed the car sounds very loud, but doesn't seem to be moving? well... now you know!

Nextup: we'll take a look at forced induction! feel free to comment, ask any questions or leave a note if you found this useful.

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Old 4th March 2009, 05:52 AM   #2 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

/clap
Wonderfull article, please keep it up i enjoyed reading it!
Very informative, would changing my mufflers to improve airflow also increase my mileage? Or would the noise be too hard to bear?

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Old 4th March 2009, 03:55 PM   #3 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Originally Posted by greenapples View Post
/clap
Wonderfull article, please keep it up i enjoyed reading it!
Very informative, would changing my mufflers to improve airflow also increase my mileage? Or would the noise be too hard to bear?
haha.. thanks!
just a little write up, and at the same time revising sch stuffs.

um.. bout increasing mileage, i'm not so sure. but i reckon that if the efficiency improves, you get better mileage for the same power output. Unless, the exhaust is too big. which in this case leads to a drop in efficiency = poorer consumption.

noise is a by product. but yeah.. stock is the quietest possible coz it's a priority criteria in the design. louder mufflers give better power, but are not good for long drives.. can get quite irritating and droning.

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Old 5th March 2009, 06:31 AM   #4 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Hmmmm, mind if i ask the simplest (cheapest if applicable) mod to improve handling/performance.
But if i think logically wouldn't the manufacturer have already done that? >.<

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Old 5th March 2009, 04:43 PM   #5 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

hmm.. think the simpliest mod would be the exhaust. a better flow muffler, extractors or piping, anything to reduce restrictions but maintain the stock diameter.
In exhaust design, manufacturers put emissions, noise and cost before performance. unless its a performance orientated vehicle, eg exotics, or it has a trademark sound, eg Harleys. no one would buy a Harley if it didn't sound like one right.

same can't be said for the intake/air filters. changing to a higher flow one might introduce more dirt inside, clogging up the MAF sensors n such.

my family's corolla had idling problems about 2+ years after i put in a drop in SS filter, it would suddenly drop very low and the whole car would vibrate. the problem seemed to go away after sending the throttle body for cleaning and going back to the stock paper filter. There wasn't much noticeable difference in power anyway for normal driving, or my butt dyno needs recalibration.

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Old 9th March 2009, 06:16 AM   #6 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Very informative =D thanks typeX

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Old 3rd April 2009, 02:03 AM   #7 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

That is very useful and in depth information...

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Old 3rd April 2009, 02:09 AM   #8 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

very nice & informative article indeed!

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Old 19th April 2009, 03:07 AM   #9 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

edited with pics! should look better now.

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Old 20th June 2009, 08:40 AM   #10 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Nice Info. Learning car is like putting physics in good practice.

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Old 16th July 2009, 03:37 AM   #11 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

yo typex . juz wondering wat r u majoring in ? kinda curious . coz u realli noes a lot of tings about cars , considering ur age . or mayb is juz hobby . anyways u r doin ur study in melbourne i presume ? so hows life there ? nice weather ya over there

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Old 17th July 2009, 09:07 AM   #12 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Originally Posted by kusanag1 View Post
yo typex . juz wondering wat r u majoring in ? kinda curious . coz u realli noes a lot of tings about cars , considering ur age . or mayb is juz hobby . anyways u r doin ur study in melbourne i presume ? so hows life there ? nice weather ya over there
yoz.. haha, i'm doing automotive engrg, thou it's really similar to mech engrg and yups it's in melb. hehs, still have alot don't know. Just thought it'll be interesting to write this small page out as a refresher for myself on a few stuffs learnt before.

You're in sg now? Very chio FD you have there.. can see u're a big rotary fan, continuing your choice over to sg. hehs..

Just touched down in melb this morning, was in sg for a short holiday.. very cooling, it's like the whole place is air-con. lol~

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Old 17th July 2009, 09:18 AM   #13 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Originally Posted by typeX View Post
yoz.. haha, i'm doing automotive engrg, thou it's really similar to mech engrg and yups it's in melb. hehs, still have alot don't know. Just thought it'll be interesting to write this small page out as a refresher for myself on a few stuffs learnt before.

You're in sg now? Very chio FD you have there.. can see u're a big rotary fan, continuing your choice over to sg. hehs..

Just touched down in melb this morning, was in sg for a short holiday.. very cooling, it's like the whole place is air-con. lol~
if not how to be Automobile moderator

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Old 18th July 2009, 12:57 AM   #14 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

errrr....

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Old 19th July 2009, 09:02 AM   #15 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

When you coming back TypeX =X come back open ur own auto shop lehx =X i sapork!

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Old 19th July 2009, 01:54 PM   #16 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Originally Posted by greenapples View Post
When you coming back TypeX =X come back open ur own auto shop lehx =X i sapork!
lol.. still left 1.5yrs more. Had a thought of designing my own stuff n fabricating them.. something like fong kim. bt that one needs lots of resources.. maybe quite far away still.

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Old 19th July 2009, 02:48 PM   #17 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Interesting, I'm thinking of a career in automotive eng as well, as they're building a new racetrack at changi, would be a good prospect. Currently studying mechanical and electronic engineering, and studying aerospace in october. An auto parts store would be good after they're done with the racetrack.


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Old 20th July 2009, 12:51 AM   #18 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Originally Posted by Reindeer View Post
Interesting, I'm thinking of a career in automotive eng as well, as they're building a new racetrack at changi, would be a good prospect. Currently studying mechanical and electronic engineering, and studying aerospace in october. An auto parts store would be good after they're done with the racetrack.
Cool.. you're doing a double diploma/degree? Or are u taking aerospace in uni? =/
I think if really wanna pursue automotive engrg, sg's not really the place to do it.

btw, is the racetrack in changi confirmed? or is it still a rumor.. Did they even allocated space for the build? didn't see anything when i was in sg for hols.. only the IRs and Ion thingy in orchard, and they were built quite quickly from what i last remembered.

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Old 20th July 2009, 06:05 AM   #19 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Eh, i believe its confirmed? I think i saw a render of the track once in the papers. Cant remember well, but hey! If i wan zhng my car sure find u man. =DD

HahA!! 1.5 yrs! You come back i ORD!

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Old 20th July 2009, 10:21 PM   #20 (permalink)
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Re: The 'whys' behind car mods

Originally Posted by greenapples View Post
Eh, i believe its confirmed? I think i saw a render of the track once in the papers. Cant remember well, but hey! If i wan zhng my car sure find u man. =DD

HahA!! 1.5 yrs! You come back i ORD!
ORD-ed . . . XD

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